"THE ONLY THING NECESSARY FOR THE TRIUMPH OF EVIL IS FOR GOOD MEN TO DO NOTHING"
--Burke

Monday, June 8, 2009

TENORM (natural radiation)

"Industrial Sectors with TENORM...The improper disposal, re-use, and recycling of diffuse TENORM has led to circumstances resulting in contamination events and unnecessary public exposures....

Table 6. Estimated annual production rates and average 226Ra concentrations
Material/Waste Stream     
Production Rate (metric tons per year) & Average 226Ra Concentration, Bq/g (pCi/g)

Metal mining and processing     1.0E+09     0.18 (5)
- Rare earths     2.1E+03     33.3 (900)
- Zirconium, hafnium, titanium, and tin     4.70E+05     1.59 (43)
- Large volume industries (e.g., copper, iron)     1.0E+09     0.18 (5)

...The metals extraction industry typically generates ... less than 0.1 billion MT (.11 billion short tons) of smelter slag. ....Measurements made at a tin smelter showed 238U concentrations up to 1.59 Bq/g (43 pCi/g) and 232Th concentrations up to 0.7 Bq/g (19 pCi/g). Gamma survey measurements at a tin smelter showed radiation levels in slag storage areas ranging from ~0.087 to 4.35 uSv/h (10 uR/h to 500 uR/h), with average levels less than ~0.522 uSv/h (60 uR/h). "
http://www.tenorm.com/sectors.htm#Metal%20Mining%20and%20Processing%20Waste

"
My suspicion (I have no facts in this case) is that much of what came from Texas and Louisiana may fit into that broad definition of "NORM" (normally occurring radioactive material) that - though naturally occurring - becomes more concentrated than its natural "dose" on oil field pipe and drilling equipment. I confess, that if I even knew exactly how that material was regulated federally [it was not regulated] and managed in the States of Texas and Louisiana, I have forgotten it over the past decade..".... An EPA Director for the Paso del Norte region , personal email 07/24/08

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